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19Feb/110

Researchers continues to make the basic building blocks of Quantum Computers.

(PRWEB) December 19, 2003

Research and Markets announces the addition of this new report entitled "Quantum Computing: Prospects and Pitfalls" to its offerings.

This report examines the current state of the technologies aimed at making quantum computers, organizes key issues and puts them in context, and succinctly explains how the technologies work.

Quantum computers, which use attributes of particles like photons, electrons and atoms to compute, would be fantastically fast for certain types of very large problems, including searching large databases and factoring the large numbers whose solutions would render today's encryption useless.

The report lays out the technologies researchers are using to make the basic building blocks of quantum computers -- qubits -- and to connect qubits into quantum computer architectures. These technologies include ion traps, semiconductor impurities, superconductor circuits, quantum dots, neutral atom optical traps, linear optics, nuclear magnetic resonance, molecular magnets, spectral hole burning devices, and Wigner crystals.

Scientists are also at work on software algorithms aimed to enable quantum architectures to solve certain types of problems many orders of magnitude faster than the fastest classical computers.

The report includes an executive summary, a list of 16 developments to look for as these cutting-edge technologies take shape, and a section of 52 researchers to watch, including links to their Web pages. It also includes a quick tour of 68 recent developments in six areas and a section of 52 in-depth news stories.

The stories are organized into nine categories quantum computing schemes, qubits, logic gates, computer architectures, tools and resources, storage, communications, algorithms and Theory.

For a complete index of this report click on http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/41722

About Research and Markets Ltd.

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4Feb/110

Researchers Get Neurons and Silicon Talking

(PRWEB) March 27, 2006

The ultimate applications are potentially limitless. In the long term it will possibly enable the creation of very sophisticated neural prostheses to combat neurological disorders. What's more, it could allow the creation of organic computers that use living neurons as their CPU.

Those applications are potentially decades away, but in the much nearer term the new technology could enable very advanced and sophisticated drug screening systems for the pharmaceutical industry.

"Pharmaceutical companies could use the chip to test the effect of drugs on neurons, to quickly discover promising avenues of research," says Professor Stefano Vassanelli, a molecular biologist with the University of Padua in Italy, and one of the partners in the NACHIP project, funded under the European Commission’s Future and Emerging Technologies initiative of the IST programme.

NACHIP's core achievement was to develop a working interface between the living tissue of individual neurons and the inorganic compounds of silicon chips. It was a difficult task.

"We had a lot of problems to overcome," says Vassanelli. "And we attacked the problems using two major strategies, through the semiconductor technology and the biology."

With the help of German microchip company Infineon, NACHIP placed 16,384 transistors and hundreds of capacitors on a chip just 1mm squared in size. The group had to find appropriate materials and refine the topology of the chip to make the connection with neurons possible.

Biologically NACHIP uses special proteins found in the brain to essentially glue the neurons to the chip. These proteins act as more than a simple adhesive, however. "They also provided the link between ionic channels of the neurons and semiconductor material in a way that neural electrical signals could be passed to the silicon chip," says Vassanelli.

Once there, that signal can be recorded using the chip's transistors. What's more, the neurons can also be stimulated through the capacitors. This is what enables the two-way communications.

The project tested the device by stimulating the neurons and recording which ones fired using standard neuroscience techniques while tracking the signals coming from the chip.

The development of the interface and chip are crucial for this new technology, but problems remain. "Right now, we need to refine the way we stimulate the neurons, to avoid damaging them," says Vassanelli.

That's one of the problems the team hopes to tackle in a future project. Right now a proposal has been prepared which could tackle this and many other problems, including how to communicate with the neurons using genes.

"Genes are where memory come from, and without them you have no memory or computation. We want to explore a way to use genes to control the neuro-chip," says Vassanelli.

If NACHIP took the first crucial step towards a neuron-powered CPU, future work will pave the way for a genetically-powered hard disk.

"Europe is very well placed in this field of research, because it is essentially a multidisciplinary field, and we have multidisciplinary teams working on it,“ says Vassanelli. ”We also have the infrastructure with institutes like the Max Planck Institute for Biochemistry in Martinsried, which is one of the world leaders in the field. Europe should be very proud of these resources. It gives us access to equipment and expertise that would be very hard to replicate elsewhere."

Source: Based on information from NACHIP

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